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After 140 years, this old technology still keeps trains safe

  • Publicado em 6 Mar 2022
  • "Anderson's Piano" is a set of wires and signals at the Pass of Brander, near Falls of Cruachan in Scotland, that try to detect when there might be a boulder on the track. They're 140 years old, and so far no-one's been able to find a better solution - but they're working on it.
    Thanks to all the team at Network Rail and Scotland's Railway: scotlandsrailway.com/
    Edited by Michelle Martin mrsmmartin
    I'm at tomscott.com
    on Twitter at tomscott
    on Facebook at tomscott
    and on Instagram as tomscottgo

Comentários • 3 221

  • Tom Scott
    Tom Scott  6 meses atrás +13374

    I know it's obvious, but I should say it anyway: the public can't get close to these signals. Do NOT go onto tracks without permission. Access and overflight requires a lot of co-operation and paperwork, and I'm extremely grateful to all the Network Rail team who helped with this video!

    • Dave Davis
      Dave Davis 17 dias atrás

      Well, it might not be too obvious, but you were interviewing the rail workers at great length. Something like that requires coordination, in advance. The paperwork thing, is probably more of a European thing, but there are probably manuals in the US, as well.

    • Vicki Reynolds
      Vicki Reynolds Mês atrás

      @Maniee, isn't that the truth! Like wouldn't you love to hear the stories behind some of the product warnings? Do not iron clothes while wearing! Somehow, I've always thought the resulting action on that one was preceeded by, "hold my beer!" 🤷🤦😂😂👵🇺🇸

    • Jul W
      Jul W Mês atrás +1

      @Andre Vandal Either lazyness, or the government wants to "save" money. You know, just stupid engineering decisions

    • S P
      S P 4 meses atrás

      You're not my dad.

    • C. Hopper
      C. Hopper 4 meses atrás

      @gonzostwin1 That would be an EXTREMELY expensive and time-consuming endeavor.

  • Rocco M
    Rocco M 6 meses atrás +9206

    This system was originally designed to keep Glasgow residents out of Edinburgh, but it was far more effective for rocks and trains

    • ClemonR6
      ClemonR6 2 meses atrás +1

      The most uk argument ever.

    • K A
      K A 3 meses atrás

      @Sciathoir Öödngbrg?

    • Banter Maestro2
      Banter Maestro2 5 meses atrás

      @Chris Ducat Big difference: The rocks are native whilst Glaswegians are an invasive species.😄😋

    • Clive's travel and trains
      Clive's travel and trains 5 meses atrás +1

      @TheBrickGuy7939 When the Fort William line is closed for engineering works, the Flying Kipper (also known as the Caley Kipper) runs to/from Oban with a coach connection from Fort William. Therefore the system described is effective for the circumstances.

    • TheBrickGuy7939
      TheBrickGuy7939 5 meses atrás

      Not very effective for The Flying Kipper.

  • Tom Nicholas
    Tom Nicholas 6 meses atrás +4738

    “As small as a microwave […] as large as a washing machine”: I love the idea that this guy only ever uses the relative sizes of kitchen appliances as a unit of measure.

    • Tyler Newcomb
      Tyler Newcomb 18 dias atrás

      Funny enough, rock climbers will do the same. "I almost got killed by a toaster sized piece of rock fall."

    • xei ღ
      xei ღ 19 dias atrás

      @Gewel ✔ ...me

    • Dave Davis
      Dave Davis 24 dias atrás

      @Gewel ✔ Remember, this is in the UK. A washing machine could be in the kitchen. It’s about utilizing limited space.

    • Vladimir Nicolici
      Vladimir Nicolici Mês atrás

      @Hamburger HamburgerV2 Yes.

    • K r
      K r Mês atrás

      @Hamburger HamburgerV2 If you really want to warm your food with feet, you do you. I would rather use centimeter radiation.

  • NotTheWheel
    NotTheWheel 6 meses atrás +1245

    The Epitome of "If it ain't broke, Don't fix it" There's actually a lot of old technology that thrives that runs minor and crucial systems around the world. Brilliant pieces of engineering that you can only marvel at. From there are inventions that are merely advancements of one person's design. It's one of the best things about the human brain to Tinker.

    • NotTheWheel
      NotTheWheel 10 dias atrás

      @Ghost is dead I do like problems long as you got somewhere to start.

    • Ghost is dead
      Ghost is dead 10 dias atrás

      It’s crude and we can only make it more adept or adapt to it ourselves, it starts with understanding and building upon it, and you’ll find a lot more of problems than answers

    • Sean Embry
      Sean Embry Mês atrás +4

      Been in high tech for multiple decades. I've noticed that "If it's stupid and it works, it's not stupid." An example of this is Positive Train Control in the US. Horribly expensive. In the 1880's, railroads used a small "T" attached via levers to a semaphore. At stop, the "T" would rise above the rails. If a locomotive passed a stop signal, a steam valve would hit the "T", cut off steam to the throttle and applied the brakes. Simple, cheap, effective. But Oh no! Can't do that today! Need literally computers, route profiles, microwave, continuous update via 220Mhz or 950Mhz radio, satellite data links, GPS, and, and, and, ...

    • Gavin’sRandomShit
      Gavin’sRandomShit 3 meses atrás +1

      @Inkyminkyzizwoz Who cares?

    • KucheKlizma
      KucheKlizma 3 meses atrás +2

      @patu8010 In other words it's a good system, accounting for what they have available for use.

  • Just Some Guy without a Mustache
    Just Some Guy without a Mustache 6 meses atrás +2324

    Wow, mad props and respect to the people who work to deal with this. There's a lot of teamwork and cooperation involved in just making this work.

  • Syed Abdul Rahman
    Syed Abdul Rahman 6 meses atrás +753

    I love how the guy went "We don't need them to be stronger; we need them to break." Sometimes, improving on something has a negative effect on the current needs huh?

    • Глеб Горшков
      Глеб Горшков Mês atrás +1

      I know about similar situation in NASA, when they had used shuttles, they were purchasing emergency ladders, and, at some point manufacturer decided "let's improve our materials" and changed fabric to more strong one, wich is also more slippery for space suit. Astronauts didn't know about this during training, so one of them even gained trauma because of fast descend and following collision

    • Josiah Giese
      Josiah Giese 2 meses atrás

      No, improving something has a positive effect on the current needs, it has a negative effect on past needs

    • Gordon Lekfors
      Gordon Lekfors 2 meses atrás

      ok time to pipe it down, buddy. obviously improvent is realtive and always in regards to the needs.

    • fluffigverbimmelt
      fluffigverbimmelt 4 meses atrás +14

      That happens when you buy something that has not been made to the specification you need, but just has them by chance.
      IIRC, there was something similar with Mercedes. Unlike their competitors, they were still creating the turning signal noise only through the clicking of the relays while others were using dedicated tiny speakers. Worked well until the relays were changed in some way and did not have the familiar clicking sound anymore (because most manufacturers do not have consistency of clicking in mind when optimising durability etc)

    • Inkyminkyzizwoz
      Inkyminkyzizwoz 4 meses atrás +14

      @miko foin That can happen with this system too - in fact in 1949 it did

  • Rich O
    Rich O 6 meses atrás +285

    140 years, the ABSOLUTE definition of, "if it ain't broken, don't fix it"

    • Dr. Pain
      Dr. Pain Mês atrás

      Rock: “if it ain’t broken, don’t fix it”
      Tracks: NOOOOooooooooo

    • FBAV
      FBAV 4 meses atrás

      @Krytern well so I was going to say the expression seems a bit misplaced here and I also can't stand the use of cliché expressions when they're not thought of, just use them cause they're common sayings or expressions... Cause it makes no sense in this case it's more like; if it breaks it means it's working... Allthough it does make some sense in the way of saying; if the system that way itself ain't broken, no need to replace it cause it works well... But even then "if it ain't broken don't fix it"? Nah, it functions the other way around; if it breaks don't fix it cause it means there's probably rocks on the tracks... So uhm yes I get it. Pardon me Rich G, I understand what you mean to say but I disagree with saying it's the ABSOLUTE definition... It's VERY relative in this case I'd say. 😉

    • Krytern
      Krytern 4 meses atrás

      I hate that expression.

    • FBAV
      FBAV 6 meses atrás +8

      A system that functions in a way that it's actually MEANT to break is in fact the best idea to give a real warning...

  • Hifi Fan
    Hifi Fan 6 meses atrás +462

    Very impressed by Alastair's knowledge of the systems involved and eloquence when explaining the various aspects of each. It's nice to hear an expert talk about a subject they're passionate about and it's one of the main reasons I enjoy Tom's videos so much. Cheers @Tom!

    • bilinas mini
      bilinas mini 6 meses atrás +2

      trains one way or another. What I'm saying is that trains are perfect and awesome machines.

  • ke6gwf - Ben Blackburn
    ke6gwf - Ben Blackburn 6 meses atrás +827

    This concept is widely used in the US, except it's generally based on on an electrical current passed through the wires, and any break is detected and alerts the Dispatch directly.
    It is mechanically much simpler, just wires stretched on insulators, but this is unique in that it does the job with no power required.
    If it were me, I would put a small telematics box at each signal that sends an alert anytime it is tripped.
    If the cell network is available, they can last 5 years on a lithium battery because they don't actually use power until they are tripped.
    If you only had satellite available, a solar panel and battery pack could keep it going the majority of the year at least, and you add this to the mechanical signal so even in the dead of winter if the solar system dies the train still gets a warning.
    But having the remote alert would allow track workers to respond as soon as it happens, rather than only after a train reports it.
    On the other hand, maybe there is a train through there every half hour, and adding a remote alert would not gain anything!

    • Can Sabancı
      Can Sabancı 3 meses atrás +1

      @Kevin Conrad oh come on you believe that billions of years of evaluation and a couple decade old human-made technology is equivalent? solar cells' efficiency is less than 20%. And you need a reliable source of electricity to run these things smoothly.

    • Kevin Conrad
      Kevin Conrad 3 meses atrás

      @Can Sabancı Do plants grow?

    • Prof Ohki
      Prof Ohki 4 meses atrás +1

      And copper is valuable enough in those quantities that you would have to worry about theft.

    • Krytern
      Krytern 4 meses atrás

      Problem is there is no cell network in a lot of that track.

    • Ardusk
      Ardusk 4 meses atrás +3

      @Bozhidar Dimitrov My bad, won't ever try to think of how to make the world a tiny bit less miserable, now that you in your infinite wisdom deigned to sarcastically denounce us. 🙄

  • Adam Emond
    Adam Emond 6 meses atrás +131

    The timing! Wow!

    • Wira Yudha
      Wira Yudha 3 meses atrás

      @Munkey that's what I was gonna say!

    • Munkey
      Munkey 3 meses atrás +2

      The timing rivals James Burke's shot of a rocket lifting off

    • LtSMASH324
      LtSMASH324 6 meses atrás +14

      I thought they must've set that up but it just wouldn't be realistic. So perfect!

    • mahaveer d muragi
      mahaveer d muragi 6 meses atrás +5

      It's soo perfect

  • Marcus Katich
    Marcus Katich 6 meses atrás +1320

    The crew behind Anderson's piano probably had no idea that their system would last longer than the era of steam locomotion, let alone into the 21st century

    • chris smith
      chris smith 3 meses atrás +2

      @LocustSaddle that’s hindsight,
      Today electric cars are big, but hydrogen was being raved about too
      And arguably electric cars are terrible for the environment, so they may still go through radical changes

    • Master & Commander
      Master & Commander 3 meses atrás +1

      Very articulate gentleman at railway HQ …congratulations no hesitation or duplication!

    • Bobmcjoepants
      Bobmcjoepants 4 meses atrás +3

      It's really amazing to think that something so small and simple can be developed into something huge and complicated and/or last decades or centuries

    • Eustathe
      Eustathe 6 meses atrás +1

      @Tim Suetens nee, echt waar? 🙄

    • Tim Suetens
      Tim Suetens 6 meses atrás +45

      @Eustathe People back then were not idiots.

  • Spencer Coleman
    Spencer Coleman 6 meses atrás +106

    I'm a train operator in the US. I can completely understand how this system would still be the best. Sometimes it's an old solution or principle that is the most reliable in terms of energy requirements or practicality.
    Also, I can definitely vouch for the dangers of larger objects. It takes a lot to derail a train but sometimes, all it takes is a cow or a deer. I've seen it both ways.

    • Comet.X
      Comet.X 3 meses atrás +1

      @Spencer Coleman unless your in a canadian winter . A freight train with a snow plough is a site to behold in heavy snow.
      And if there is a snow bank you back up so you don't get blasted off your feet from the oncoming snow eave

    • Sune Rasmussen
      Sune Rasmussen 4 meses atrás +1

      @Spencer Coleman this is fascinating altogether, but I'm wondering exactly what you mean by "not all objects": are you referring to just particularly large and heavy things, like Alastair the engineer's example of a washing machine, or can smaller stuff like, again, microwave oven-sized rocks also 'bypass' a big, front-mounted plow?

    • Spencer Coleman
      Spencer Coleman 6 meses atrás +9

      @blazerorb not all objects get pushed out of the way. Most locomotives have some sort of plow, but they are different from the cliche cattle-catchers of old locomotives

    • blazerorb
      blazerorb 6 meses atrás +2

      I've been wondering why there aren't just plows on the front to knock objects off?

  • BradleyHarris
    BradleyHarris 6 meses atrás +592

    The fact that Tom consistently, week on week provides an extremely interesting video about a subject I would have never thought about before is magnificent.
    Thank you Tom for all that you do!

    • oQoCraft
      oQoCraft 6 meses atrás +3

      @ActuallyPings it's not a bot

    • BradleyHarris
      BradleyHarris 6 meses atrás +7

      @ActuallyPings alright mate, whatever you say….

    • ActuallyPings
      ActuallyPings 6 meses atrás +1


    • BradleyHarris
      BradleyHarris 6 meses atrás +14

      Also, that van that can also drive on the railway is beyond cool!

  • random observer
    random observer 6 meses atrás +79

    I love this mix of the old and new technology he's talking about, the balance of what works and what's innovative and potentially more capable, with an eye to geography, weather, and what's possible. That's the right mindset.

  • mulgerbill
    mulgerbill 6 meses atrás +91

    Love Victorian era railway engineering, the ingenuity applied to problem solving without electrical and electronic systems is amazing.
    Having said that, as an old hand Signalman it came as a bit of a shock to see non absolute semaphore signals with red arms

    • Lesvernorn
      Lesvernorn 4 meses atrás +5

      I adore analog engineering
      Digitals great and I wouldn't want it to disappear.
      But it's not as satisfying as analog and you feel like making it is more of a challenge

    • mulgerbill
      mulgerbill 6 meses atrás +20

      @Oscar O'sullivan was and still is tho I do miss the exercise these days. Sitting in front of a bank of monitors doesn't have the "feel" of 192 shiny steel levers and panoramic windows

    • Oscar O'sullivan
      Oscar O'sullivan 6 meses atrás +4

      Was it a good job

  • Ross Little
    Ross Little 5 meses atrás +26

    I've travelled on this line many times and I had no idea there was anything like this going on behind the scenes. I've a new found respect for Scotland's railway men and women.

  • JJ van der Meer
    JJ van der Meer 6 meses atrás +12

    Ah Tom Scott doing the work that the discovery network once did and perhaps should still be doing. Great work as always Tom.

  • Knaught Shure
    Knaught Shure 6 meses atrás +66

    It really is amazing how many engineering solutions were optimized 100 years ago or more. For one example, modern semi-auto handguns were essentially perfected by Browning in 1911 and have only been marginally improved in the 111 years since.

    • 3V3R51NC3
      3V3R51NC3 Mês atrás

      actually the worst take I’ve seen on BRclip

    • Surmabrander
      Surmabrander 3 meses atrás

      And this is how we got ulvade !

    • Knaught Shure
      Knaught Shure 3 meses atrás +1

      @Jacek N Only if you have no idea what essentially means.

    • Jacek N
      Jacek N 3 meses atrás

      @Knaught Shure "essentially" which can be more accurately translated into "actually not really".

    • FLIPP
      FLIPP 6 meses atrás

      @Knaught Shure but what makes the essence of a firearm? surely we can't just limit it to the working principle of the action

  • almostfm
    almostfm 5 meses atrás +3

    It's interesting-there are places on the Pacific Coast Highway in California where they use the same kind of restraints to keep the cliffs from sliding down onto the road. And since for a lot of places on the central coast, that's the only road into and out of town so if that's closed, there are huge detours to try and get to the town from the other direction.

  • Michael Jenkins
    Michael Jenkins 6 meses atrás +1465

    Anderson's Piano would have made a great subject for the Technical Difficulties. That is all; carry on.

      DANNY SULLIVAN MUSIC 6 meses atrás

      for real dude. absolutely right

    • Coltrinculo
      Coltrinculo 6 meses atrás

      @20102010b ty ty

    • AaronOfMpls
      AaronOfMpls 6 meses atrás +2

      😆 I'm just imagining how a _Citation Needed_ episode on this might've gone. "And today we're talking about... 'Anderson's Piano'."

    • 20102010b
      20102010b 6 meses atrás +5

      @Coltrinculo I can hear Chris saying this in my head

    • Vigilant Cosmic Penguin
      Vigilant Cosmic Penguin 6 meses atrás +14

      @Richard Moore Anderson's Piano is actually a species of hummingbird, named so because of how quiet, or, as the Italians say, piano, its call is.

  • c182SkylaneRG
    c182SkylaneRG 6 meses atrás +29

    When I saw the thumbnail, I thought you were talking about semaphores. :) I was confused because there are regular lighted signals on certain railway lines these days, not just semaphores. The mechanical rock fall detection system makes more sense (and makes a lot of sense for needing to use semaphores :) ).

  • Bier B
    Bier B 2 meses atrás +5

    As a kid, I always imagined that cars could just be converted into rail vehicles by getting rid of the tires and these guys actually realized kid me's imagination

  • BhavaSindh
    BhavaSindh 6 meses atrás +9

    Tom, again a great video! You really have a gift to find these stories and the people who are so invested in their jobs - the Scottish engineer in this video or the Germans from Deutsche Bahn from the training center for signal workers (?)!

  • MuttMutt Outdoors
    MuttMutt Outdoors 3 meses atrás +2

    They still use something similar in the US along certain routes. I rode Amtrak from Omaha, NE to Oakland, CA in the 90's and along the mountain passes from Denver to Sacramento there were multiple wires stretched along beside the tracks. At that point I had no clue what it was but learned later on that they were there to detect rock falls and such. It's an amazing trip going through the mountains for sure though. I went through in December headed west and January headed east through those area's, something I truly want to do again sometime.

  • Lulu Moon
    Lulu Moon 5 meses atrás +3

    As a happy passenger who's been lucky enough to travel by train through the Highlands, I'm grateful for this technology! And I highly recommend this trip to everyone, it's spectacular! 🚂❤️

  • Sonny Hannebohn
    Sonny Hannebohn 3 meses atrás +3

    Wow that's amazing, I have hopped almost every mainline in America. I would love to hop through there it looks gorgeous. I love old analog tech, especially in the train sector.

  • Daunte Falck
    Daunte Falck Mês atrás +3

    I actually find it endearing that a guy 140 years ago came up with an answer to a problem he was dealing with and all this time later it's still in use

    • RFC3514
      RFC3514 26 dias atrás +1

      You should check out mathematics. We're still solving problems with answers people came up with over 2000 years ago. ;-)

  • Ostsol
    Ostsol 6 meses atrás +16

    My thought would be a rail drone that drives on sufficiently far ahead of a train that if an obstruction is detected, the train will have time to stop. Cameras could be added so that the train operator is able to visually confirm the warning. The obvious problem, however, is when the obstruction occurs after the drone has passed. This could easily happen with other systems, though. If a rock fall happens too soon in front of a train, it won't be detected in time for the train to stop.

    • elysium dominus
      elysium dominus  3 meses atrás

      Are all Europeans this midwiTted???

    • Frédéric ANDRÉ
      Frédéric ANDRÉ 3 meses atrás +1

      A couple of flying drones which relay each other and recharge on the train, flying ahead, scanning for rocks using cameras/infrared, would present less of a collision risk than a rail drone.

    • Inkyminkyzizwoz
      Inkyminkyzizwoz 4 meses atrás

      Mind you, that can be an issue with this system too. In fact, precisely that happened in 1949

    • Mach Tony
      Mach Tony 6 meses atrás +2

      In a perfect world, this could be combined with some modern "Linienzugbeeinflussung" (LZB) / European Train Control System (ETCS) type system.
      (Of course, this would cost money... and reading a bit about ETCS, it seems to have some problems of its own...)

  • Luan
    Luan 6 meses atrás +1573

    I honestly could hear this guy talk about trains and rail for days.

    • tsm688
      tsm688 4 meses atrás

      you can. the wonders of modern technology

    • tolkienfan1972
      tolkienfan1972 5 meses atrás +1

      I was just thinking how I love his accent. The Scot. I'm English so Tom's accent is just ordinary to me

    • Katie Hazeltine
      Katie Hazeltine 6 meses atrás

      @protercool XD

    • Katie Hazeltine
      Katie Hazeltine 6 meses atrás +2

      purple burglar alarm

    • Jed-Henry Witkowski
      Jed-Henry Witkowski 6 meses atrás

      @Jyrik Morgul Agreed.

  • MarkJT1000
    MarkJT1000 6 meses atrás +1

    Another fascinating video. Alastair's descriptions and explanation of the systems was excellent.

  • Arashi
    Arashi 6 meses atrás

    this is so cool! I work at the german train rail and we got old signals that look similar but nothing so cool. Really nice to see an in depth vid about this

  • kerrermanisNL
    kerrermanisNL 6 meses atrás +2

    That was very well and clearly explained. Good interview!

  • Shaolin Funk
    Shaolin Funk 6 meses atrás +4

    I love a low tech, reliable solution. This one weidly reminds me of how the Soyuz rocket ignites its engines, which involves giant wooden matches and sensor wires that melt and break the circuit to indicate successful ignition

    • rear speaker
      rear speaker 3 meses atrás

      that explains why their rockets would never launch straight!!

  • SoupBane
    SoupBane 6 meses atrás +2195

    I just think that this proves that trains and train related devices are already near-perfect. I mean whenever someone tries to reinvent transportation, it just ends up coming back to trains one way or another.
    What I'm saying is that trains are perfect and awesome machines.

    • Khronogi
      Khronogi 6 meses atrás

      @EmSeeSeeBort Am American, want trains in my state but one of the governments said no to the money that was available to build the service.
      B is sort of hinting at the reason that government didn't want the trains. Everyone and their mum wanted a stop along the route, because that would bring income / ease of access, and that would bog the train system down. (I don't think they thought about having certain express trains just not stopping at those local routes, pity on them.)
      Everyone would need to drive to the train station, sort of like rentals or parking at the airport, and we would need to reconfigure lots of land, especially those in cities, in order to accommodate them. This is something that would be expensive, and burdensome as well as having troubles with locals and permits to do.
      That being said, if it were done would solve a lot of problems here. I for one have a brother in a large city that I would have been able to visit fairly cheaply by going on a train, but instead would have to drive down there myself. And in current times, the gas prices on the rise increase that problem.

    • ParticuLarry
      ParticuLarry 6 meses atrás

      Ah, I see see you've been watching "Adam Something", too!

    • DynamicWorlds
      DynamicWorlds 6 meses atrás

      @D33P that's why you use very, very small magnets. Think electron size 😉
      Seriously though, normal bullet trains still do very well vs maglev

    • D33P
      D33P 6 meses atrás

      @DynamicWorlds ok but if it hovers there's less friction. maglev trains exist.

    • Peter Pan
      Peter Pan 6 meses atrás +1

      This low tech solution for trains still beats the equivalent system used on highways.
      That system being: keep your eyes on the road and hope for the best.

  • Will Hovell
    Will Hovell 5 meses atrás +2

    Some Victorian technology has stood the test of time. Much of the semaphore signaling was produced by Saxby and Farmer at their factory in Kilburn North West London, that employed nearly 3,000 people

    JOHN HARRIS 2 meses atrás

    I'm impressed with the mechanical simplicity of this and so if it works then don't change it, but I'm surprised the signal arms are red home/starter signals which quite rightly should not be passed when at danger without authorisation. A simple solution to this would be to change the arms to a yellow fish tailed distant type, where if it is lowered then it can be passed but at reduced speed as it indicates the way ahead is not clear and must be treated by the driver to take caution.

  • Nigel Tolley
    Nigel Tolley 3 meses atrás +1

    I can see a way to improve it without much fuss. Add a low powered radio signal to the arm, so when it drops, you know, before the train arrives! Battery with solar would last for years, as you could have a physical off tilt switch.

  • DatBro
    DatBro 6 meses atrás +1

    1:55 says it all. The Scots love their heritage. They choose not to formalise things to preserve the idea of 'knowledge passed on through generations'. Similar stories are told at distilleries.

  • Peter Hayes
    Peter Hayes 6 meses atrás +668

    Petition for all physical hazards to be measured by the Scottish Standard "Microwave to Washing Machine" Scale.

    • Sven Norén
      Sven Norén 5 meses atrás

      Extend the scale downwards to Cellphone" and "Penny", and upwards to "Car" and "House".

    • Jarad Smethers
      Jarad Smethers 6 meses atrás +1

      @oight both weigh more than a kg so both are invalid

    • oight
      oight 6 meses atrás

      got a question for you. what's heavier? a kg of microwaves, or a kg of washing machines?
      the answer is a kg of washing machines. because washing machines are heavier than microwaves 🙂

    • fitter70
      fitter70 6 meses atrás

      Petition granted

    • Matt Pratt
      Matt Pratt 6 meses atrás +1

      Metric or imperial Microwaves & Washing Machines?

  • LISA - Ann
    LISA - Ann 6 meses atrás +35

    That the "Anderson's Piano"-system operates to this day has something to do with a railway safety principle. That principle is simple: a railway track wich is free from trains gives a continuous electrical signal to the main safety system saying: I’m free, trains are welcome. When a train is on the track, it shortcut this signal and the main safety system puts the signal that gives access to the track on Stop. This safety principle has also the effect that when there is a malfunction, the main safety system always keep a signal on Stop. It’s also known as "failsafe".
    The Anderson's Piano-system is based on that same failsafe principle, but instead of a continuous electrical signal, it uses a mechanical continuous signal in the form of a wire. If a wire malfunction, the connected signal falls down to Stop.
    Replacing this system gives two main challenges: making a system that is failsafe and making that the system gives less false reports than correct reports.

    • egg egg egg egg
      egg egg egg egg 6 meses atrás +7

      @Leaf? its a bot don't be a coomer

    • Leaf?
      Leaf? 6 meses atrás

      that pfp pic bro

  • Zerg
    Zerg 6 meses atrás +2

    As mechanical and software engineer, i find this problem fascinating… i don’t suppose any train guy here happens to know the average stopping distance of a train cruising at 60mph? Are there required regulations, must stop by Y if travelling X speed etc?

    • Holger P.
      Holger P. 5 meses atrás

      The common solution is a pre-signal to the signal. If there is "a red traffic light", you have a signal 2-3km ahead announcing "next light is probably red".
      On modern high speed trains, there are not signals at all, the information is transmitted directly to the train.
      If there is a requirement "must stop by Y if travelling X" the solution is a speed limit ;-) You lower the X until Y is fullfilled.

  • Ashurean
    Ashurean 5 meses atrás

    So what I get from this is that there are solutions that could be hypothetically implemented, but due to the issues installing and maintaining those systems would introduce compared to the potential improvements in the safety factor, the existing system just makes sense to keep around.

  • Shadowheart Art
    Shadowheart Art 6 meses atrás +2

    This is fast becoming one of my favourite channels. Always such interesting and fascinating videos

  • Dan
    Dan 6 meses atrás +426

    Alistair could announce an impending apocalypse and I'd still feel calm

    • Varangian af Scaniae
      Varangian af Scaniae 6 meses atrás

      @Wikan Saktianto What we have now is just imaginations of our media and those who rule us. But what you should be looking out for is what media isn't talking about.

    • 2760ade
      2760ade 6 meses atrás +1

      @Dale Stephenson Ha ha, yes! I always seem to get that angry sounding chap in India who is clearly reading from a script😂

    • Wikan Saktianto
      Wikan Saktianto 6 meses atrás +3

      Impending apocalypse.. did you mean recent days or last year?

    • OCC Plumbing & Restorations
      OCC Plumbing & Restorations 6 meses atrás

      Nathan Evans: am I a joke to you?

    • Dale Stephenson
      Dale Stephenson 6 meses atrás +28

      I would not have panic attacks before calling customer service if I knew Alistair was on the other end of the line.

  • Chris McKeown
    Chris McKeown 6 meses atrás +31

    1:57 "There's not a user manual or a downloadable book on how to how to maintain Anderson's Piano; we need to pass that down through generations of technicians and engineers"
    Wait what? So in 140 years of its existence, nobody has written anything down about this stuff? I find it hard to believe that they haven't documented the maintenance procedures, especially within the last 40 years or so.

    • Dirk
      Dirk 5 meses atrás +2

      You obviously have never worked in construction then.

    • SynchroScore
      SynchroScore 6 meses atrás +26

      I'm sure that they have. He's saying that, unlike commercial signalling systems, you can't just get a manual from the manufacturer.

  • Bhanu Pratap Chauhan
    Bhanu Pratap Chauhan 6 meses atrás +2

    There are visible safety fears when I travel to high terrains in Himalayas where rockslide could be happening from directly overhead giving you a reaction time of just a few seconds.
    I just think even if you are somehow able to detect such an event just the moment it occurs, you don't have enough reaction time to beat it.

  • W. Puerschel
    W. Puerschel 6 meses atrás

    I consider this one of the best short descriptions of a technical device on BRclip. Thanks to a cleverly setup of introduction, questions and moderation, it is the thoroughly thought-through text spoken in on and off of the railway engineer that does one make interested in railway design way beyond the pure coveredge of the 'Anderson's Piano'. So, thank you for it from Austria. /wp

  • dager3000
    dager3000 6 meses atrás

    Love seeing stuff like this just work through effort of everyone involved. Then you got me using the brand new Elizabeth line where they cancel and delay for no reason and then send 3 trains on the line one after the other at snails paces instead. Great work England, maybe you should make effort too.

  • Danny Hodge
    Danny Hodge 6 meses atrás +1086

    I work for a Software company that creates a lot of technology for ensuring the Rail Network in the UK is safe (such as gauging). I have absolutely no idea how I'd approach this issue, and honestly, I think wire on a stick is still the best approach. Well played, Scotland.

    • C F
      C F 6 meses atrás +1

      @Luke Briggs You're not one of those people who thinks self-driving cars on public streets are going to be anything other than a tragic and hilarious failure, are you?

    • Luke Briggs
      Luke Briggs 6 meses atrás

      @C F Also worthy mention: a drone (either a UAV or ground based) would work fine with coarse location data as a vision based nav systems main source of detailed location is SLAM with the rails themselves. SLAM is used by self-driving cars to locate themselves, including in tunnels.

    • C F
      C F 6 meses atrás +1

      @Luke Briggs I'm a land surveyor:
      --You vastly underestimate the effort involved in accurately geo-locating something. The drone would have to be tied into continuously operating reference GPS stations, either by radio or by cell, which is challenging and inconsistent in rough terrain.
      --LIDAR is easily confounded by rain and snow.
      --The drone must be able to fly a reasonably precise course over a long distance in all sorts of high wind and weather. This is not a job for a quadcopter. Even the $30k fixed-wing drones are only flown over relatively small areas and in good weather. They're not terribly durable either. They're made to fly maybe a few hours a week. You'd be wearing out multiple drones a year running this schedule.
      --Post-processing LIDAR data is more involved and reliant on judgement than it looks.
      --There are no turn-key packages for what you're proposing. This is a fairly niche set of conditions, and doing all the systems integration, as well as installing all the reference stations and radio repeaters would easily run into the 10s of millions of dollars.
      Go outside more--Technology is not a panacea.

    • DereinzigwahreAkede
      DereinzigwahreAkede 6 meses atrás +1

      @AByte User Nah it´s just a way to take the physical signal and relay as an electrical one. So you can either send somebody to check the rails or at least inform any aproaching train ahead of time. At no point either of us talked about any auto reset feature or perpetual motion xD

    • AByte User
      AByte User 6 meses atrás

      @DereinzigwahreAkede so you two geniuses invented a perpetual motion machine... or where does the energy to reset it come from?

  • Untitled_Channel
    Untitled_Channel 3 meses atrás +2

    Ok legit question: how the heck did you perfectly time that train at the end!?

  • Haritha Jayasinghe
    Haritha Jayasinghe 6 meses atrás

    One alternative, which is currently used for some infrastructure in the UK, is a fibre optic sensing system. Essentially very similar to this, except instead of cables there's fibre optic wires. It'll generally detect an issue before the rockfall happens, because the wire will measure increases in strain at every single location on the wire at high resolution, and can pinpoint exactly where the issue is.

  • Carpe Noctem
    Carpe Noctem 6 meses atrás +1

    Scottish engineering has always been among the best in the world, why reinvent the wheel as they say!

  • Jason Myles
    Jason Myles 6 meses atrás +1

    I worked for a Canadian train company for 10 years, and they have a similar system in place for determining the location of trains on parts of the mainline track that lack radio access. One rail is positive and another rail is negative, and there is a very tiny current. When a train drives over a section of track, the axle of the train shorts the circuit, and they know there is a train on that section of the track. It appears to have worked exactly like the in the video: the state of this circuit caused an arm to go up and down via counterweights to signal if this part of the track was safe. I believe some metro systems use a similar system to signal the location of trains.

    • David Barts
      David Barts 6 meses atrás +1

      Mainline railorads use DC for the track circuits, metro systems use AC. Otherwise very similar. Metros cannot use DC for track circuits because the return current for the traction power (also DC) would interfere.

  • chishionotenshi
    chishionotenshi 6 meses atrás +2441

    I wonder why they haven't written a manual on the maintenance of this system? Sure, a lot of it is probably fiddling with it (in an engineer way) until things work properly, but there should be no barrier to writing out what the general methods are, and the "DO NOT DO THIS UNLESS YOU WISH DEATH" warnings.

    • DeadlyPlatypus
      DeadlyPlatypus 6 meses atrás

      @Neamow I see you've never worked in the military, where sometimes the systems change faster than the people... there's no point in writing manuals for things that won't last long enough to need them.

    • Happy Wednesday
      Happy Wednesday 6 meses atrás

      @Major Fallacy just one problem with the railway

    • Happy Wednesday
      Happy Wednesday 6 meses atrás +1

      Why would you bring logic into modern British Railways sir

    • Chris M
      Chris M 6 meses atrás

      it wouldn't surprise me if part of it is 'because it's always been done this way'. I used to work for one of the train operators in an admin role and trying to get one of stations to send lost property reports via email instead of hand written forms faxed to the office and then transcribed by someone on to a database was like trying to pull teeth whilst stacking marbles in a corner.

    • Marius Flekats
      Marius Flekats 6 meses atrás

      How software is what? Documented? Ha.. that's a good one.

  • Clockwork Kirlia
    Clockwork Kirlia 6 meses atrás

    Fascinating and excellent work Tom!

  • Tulle Rönnmyr
    Tulle Rönnmyr 6 meses atrás +1

    It's a bit incredible that they've tried to stop rocks from falling on the rail for 140 years and there are still rocks falling. Makes you think about how even a mountain can be a living system.

  • welshpete12
    welshpete12 6 meses atrás

    I worked on the railway for nearly 45 years and I had never heard of this !

  • Ryan Aun
    Ryan Aun 6 meses atrás

    Love to see old tech that's still kicking, it's so pleasing! Thanks for the captions again too!

  • H
    H 6 meses atrás +1317

    Tom your timing is always on point! I would not be surprised if that was planned :D

    • Cloud
      Cloud 6 meses atrás +2

      * radios train * Alright my next paragraph will take exactly 22 seconds, so from 100 metres away, start building up speed... now.

    • Vigilant Cosmic Penguin
      Vigilant Cosmic Penguin 6 meses atrás +6

      The train was a Tom Scott fan and wanted to appear in the video.

    • KingRCT3
      KingRCT3 6 meses atrás +4

      'planned'? No, it was 'trained'!

    • codyT_arsis
      codyT_arsis 6 meses atrás

      this was definitely video shopped. without a shred of doubt

    • PouLS
      PouLS 6 meses atrás

      @Logan R But they change constantly. Besides, it's in UK, which is famous for its public transportation delays.

  • Marty Fourre
    Marty Fourre 3 meses atrás +1

    if this was in the United States, the railroad company would likely have the signals set to "Restricting" (white/lunar aspect), which means proceed at very low speed

  • GNR L1
    GNR L1 5 meses atrás +1

    I dont know why we ever moved on from semaphore signals, from what I've seen and heard of, the lighted computerized signaling system seems to be far less reliable, one example I can recall is drivers miss enterpreting lighted signals due to glare from the sun at certain angles, at least with a semaphrore there's a physical indicator that acts in tandem with the light

  • john bergamini
    john bergamini 6 meses atrás

    What a fantastic video! I live near and dream about the most treacherous piece of track men have ever tried to tame in the Eel River valley. There was a line that made it possible to travel (with your car!) between San Francisco and Eureka California. It traveled through the most seismically active land in North America. They eventually gave up, and hundreds of unused miles of track lay as testament.

  • Quintarus1794
    Quintarus1794 6 meses atrás +2

    I love how the default rock size classification is household appliances.

  • The Man Downstairs
    The Man Downstairs 6 meses atrás +446

    It's actually a bit funny to imagine someone from the rail service ordering new wire for Anderson's Piano starting with the line, "I need 100 metres of your weakest wire"

    • Richard
      Richard 3 meses atrás

      @John Airey in a container filled with a type of oil

    • cornishcactus
      cornishcactus 6 meses atrás

      @John Murrell you may want to look up sarcasm mate ;)

    • John Murrell
      John Murrell 6 meses atrás +1

      @cornishcactus From what is said in the video you need to look up weak fence wire - strong may not break under rock impact.

    • Marvin De Bot
      Marvin De Bot 6 meses atrás +2

      @John Airey All fencing wire is plated, it is designed to live outside, remember?

    • Ben
      Ben 6 meses atrás +5

      @FullNuclearBreakfast my wires are too weak for you traveler!

  • SorrowAndSufferin
    SorrowAndSufferin 2 meses atrás

    I am perhaps most impressed by the Anderson person who thought "Hey, what do rocks do when they fall? They break stuff. So, what stuff can I detect the rocks breaking?" and then wandered up to the railway with a cable and two wodden planks and invented the piano. :D

  • FreeDom Sy
    FreeDom Sy 6 meses atrás

    What a timing. Everything is perfect about your videos

  • Jackal1412
    Jackal1412 6 meses atrás +1

    This is super neat and a really interesting idea!
    Though, I wonder at what point simply running power near the rail to update everything makes more financial sense 🤔
    I presume they've done the calculations, I'm just curious 😊

    • Dave Beer
      Dave Beer 6 meses atrás

      Far cheaper to just oversize a PV.battery for power needs. Distribution of power can be wasteful in remote areas. (depends on power needed, and distance covered)

    • Mark Dice
      Mark Dice 6 meses atrás

      Appreciate your time,
      I’d share a beneficial knowledge

  • Scott Thomas
    Scott Thomas 5 meses atrás

    It's simple, reliable, and it works....worth keeping. Like windsocks at an airport.

  • Stacia
    Stacia 6 meses atrás +1

    Thankful for all these great minds and people who essentially keep the world running smooth.
    Thanks for another great video & effort Tom!

  • Jerry Buxton
    Jerry Buxton 6 meses atrás

    A very nice video, thank you. It's about the same over here, for slide/fall detection. Very much more integrated with the signal system and dispatcher, but a fence is a fence at the guts of the system!
    I worked with the railroad for 39 years and I will say that "If it ain't broke, don't fix it" is a viable option in considering system changes or upgrades. Every system/option has its trades.

  • DrivingAroundSlovenia
    DrivingAroundSlovenia 5 meses atrás

    Interesting subject again. And very informative. Great job as always 👍

  • RFC3514
    RFC3514 6 meses atrás +63

    1:58 - "There's no user manual." - Er... then shouldn't someone *_make_* one? I mean, user manuals don't just materialise out of the ether, someone needs to write them.

    • Nikolai Markov
      Nikolai Markov 27 dias atrás

      @RFC3514 "the Aboriginal "in-person-teaching-only" space programme" God, what a great way to describe KSP

    • RFC3514
      RFC3514 Mês atrás +6

      @Fabbrizio Plays - Manuals exist to _standardise_ teaching and to function as _references._ Especially with something this complex, that requires diagrams, maps, etc., there should be a manual even if people are being trained "in person".
      How does relying on some random guys' ability to memorise the locations, settings and specifications of different parts "beat" having them written down in a curated document, that they can refer to when necessary?
      There was only one space shuttle launch pad (well, eventually there were two). Do you think they didn't have manuals for it? Every part and every procedure was fully documented.
      How's the Aboriginal "in-person-teaching-only" space programme doing?

    • Fabbrizio Plays
      Fabbrizio Plays Mês atrás +1

      The only reason manuals exist is for situations where it's impractical to teach someone in-person, because it is mass produced and sold to various unconnected places.
      There is only one Anderson Piano system, in use by a singular, tight-knit group, which absolutely has the resources to teach in-person. And live teaching always, *always* beats learning from a book. It's not even close.

  • epsyloN
    epsyloN 6 meses atrás +775

    I don't know if Tom realizes how much his videos make people like me want to visit the UK.
    Those Scottish landscapes look absolutely gorgeous.

    • Grort
      Grort 6 meses atrás

      @hjalfi My guy doing Canna dirty like that, ignoring it in favour of Rùm (not Rhum), Eigg and Muck.

    • Keith Kirk
      Keith Kirk 6 meses atrás

      Check out Scottish History Tours if you're interested in more Scottish landscapes. Bruce does a good job adding interesting vistas in while he's telling you some history.

    • Rob Fraser
      Rob Fraser 6 meses atrás +1

      @meismehaha Well Scotland (and the UK) is the Atlantic North West, whenever I see an American place that resembles something we have here in the UK it is usually in Washington, Oregon or British Columbia. They seem to have the same damp, muddy terrain, enormous trees and almost constant rainfall that we know and love.

    • meismehaha
      meismehaha 6 meses atrás

      These shots look a lot like the American pacific northwest in spots.
      I'm not saying they're the same at all but this specific area looks like a few locations in the PNW.

      DANNY SULLIVAN MUSIC 6 meses atrás

      you are absolutely correct

  • George Whitehead
    George Whitehead 2 meses atrás +2

    Dear Sir, maybe you could think of adding Drones to your scouting and surveillance methods. They are low in cost and super efficient in what they can spot. They could be sent out from the train engineer's cab, right there in the train. Good luck in trying to save lives. Wouldn't it be so cool to have something 140 years old, working in tandem with something as modern as Drones.

  • Alex Dokic
    Alex Dokic 6 meses atrás

    Hi, very interesting, but as a former Rail employee I just wanted to say that you should look both ways before going onto the track regardless of the normal direction of travel!🙂

  • Raine
    Raine 6 meses atrás

    i like it. if the old system works good enough, dont make any changes, no matter how old fashioned it seems. as i like to say:
    if it aint broke, dont fix it.

  • Josué Vicioso
    Josué Vicioso 6 meses atrás

    Tom Scott back at it again with the perfect passing train timing 😎

  • Halko
    Halko 6 meses atrás

    They evaluated different cables but some of them were so strong that the problem was they didn’t break and rocks didn’t continue to the tracks.

  • Amadeus L.
    Amadeus L. 6 meses atrás +1

    That timing when you ended the video and the train passed was just so perfect :D

  • MA P
    MA P 6 meses atrás +1

    It’s amazing how much upstate New York and Scotland look alike. The rivers cutting through mountains on both side and the utter bleakness in winter. Fantastic.

    • arenalife
      arenalife 5 meses atrás +2

      Scotland shares geology with North-Eastern North America as they were joined at one point so that would make sense

  • terry landess
    terry landess 6 meses atrás

    It's stuff like this that reminds me when I mention people from the past were just as intelligent with a different set of knowledge skills. It's amazing how many instances of the Dunning-Kruger effect our modern society has produced.

  • Enzo Sonego
    Enzo Sonego 6 meses atrás +187

    "something as small as a microwave could cause problems to a train" for a moment there i was mesmerized about how a wavelength could cause problems to a train

  • Vectrobe
    Vectrobe 6 meses atrás

    I guess for a start you'd want to run some power and networking to help with reliable connection to sensory IOT, but thats easier said than done since you'd need high voltages to maintain power delivery over those distances, and either copper networking or extremely heavilly reinforced fibre that will withstand any contact with rocks, and also repeating for either.
    Undersea cable encased in steel piping and concrete perhaps?

  • TUXmint
    TUXmint 6 meses atrás

    Installing sensors on the signals should be incredibly easy so that they can at least check any alerts before trains have to slow down for them and react faster. Also i'll just assume these are very low traffic railways as they should have been electrified long ago otherwise, thus removing the issue of providing electricity to any equipment. Sweden, despite being many times the size of Scotland has managed to electrify most of its railroads. This seems to be more an issue of lack of long-term investment into the rail network.

  • Dan
    Dan 6 meses atrás

    As such a big rail fan, I thank you for this video

  • Neil Bain
    Neil Bain 6 meses atrás

    This will be what closed the stretch of the same line from Dunblane to Crianlarich Lower a month or so before it was due to close anyway. The line also included Killin Junction Station (not accessible by road) for the Killin Branch. There was a rockfall past Callendar up Loch Lubnaig that tripped the signals and it was deemed not worth clearing. It's still there to this day. The cycle track on the old railway leaves the track bed and forms a switch back carved into the hillside up and past the rockfall well below you then takes you back down. It's very scenic but it's still a tough bit of ascent/descent for a cycle.
    Is there a different signalling system now for train movements on the line which is separate from Anderson's Piano? I thought trains were now controlled by radio communication.

  • Wico90
    Wico90 6 meses atrás +302

    Tom loves trains, and landslide warning videos.

    • MonkeyJedi99
      MonkeyJedi99 6 meses atrás +1

      Tom the tank engine explainer?

    • OneManWolfPack
      OneManWolfPack 6 meses atrás +11

      And so do we, or at least I hope so (in moderation).

  • StYxXx
    StYxXx 6 meses atrás

    Well they probably could add simple microcontrollers to the old signals that would send a radio signal if it goes up. Doesn't need much energy and only costs a few bucks. Actually the movement alone could be enough to power it. This wouldn't change the system but get the information about something happening to the operators more quickly. But since they haven't done that already it might not have any benefits since the next train has to slow down and inspect the site anyway... Seems like the old system is good enough :D

  • HotAxleBox
    HotAxleBox Mês atrás

    I thought there was a similar, electronic system used around the Dover area. Should a rock fall happen, trip circuits are made and it puts an emergency call out on the GSMR, telling drivers in the area to stop.

  • Bill Green
    Bill Green 6 meses atrás

    Having listened to the chief engineer I am confident if there is a way to improve this system they are on it. Another great video Tom.

  • Bier B
    Bier B 2 meses atrás +1

    No matter how much I learn about the English language and the world, all Scottish people sounding like the TF2 Demoman will never stop being amazing to me

  • Zac M.
    Zac M. 6 meses atrás +899

    I like the size comparison to microwaves and washing machines, rather sensible. And the timing of the Sprinter at the end there was impeccable!
    Also was quite surprised Geoff didn't make an appearance here :P
    Interesting bit of kit too, think I've heard of it before but never really looked into it.

    • abcdefghijklmao
      abcdefghijklmao 6 meses atrás

      @Daedalus Young no… you need blocks of cheese and Big Macs for America

    • Oscar O'sullivan
      Oscar O'sullivan 6 meses atrás +1

      I think Geoff would have been great in this video

    • Michael Richards
      Michael Richards 6 meses atrás +2

      This part was clearly written by someone from the US 😅

    • Daedalus Young
      Daedalus Young 6 meses atrás +3

      They're American measurements, I think.

    • Benito
      Benito 6 meses atrás +1

      I 0k

  • Meliora Cogito
    Meliora Cogito 6 meses atrás

    Looks like it's time to reforest the slopes of the mountains of the region with conifers. Even 50-100 m deep strips running laterally across the slopes at various elevations with grazing pastures between would go along way to lessen the impact of slides fouling the tracks below. Planting trees is far more "practical" than not.

  • JulianShagworthy
    JulianShagworthy 6 meses atrás

    This is absolutely fascinating - I'm taking my boys down to have a closer look at this system at the weekend :)

  • Kelly Larsen
    Kelly Larsen 4 meses atrás

    Interestingly, the apollo launch escape system uses a similar mechanism. wires ran the length of the rocket, and if more than one broke then the capsule would be pulled away from the rocket

  • greatleapforwards
    greatleapforwards 6 meses atrás

    was thinking about that video you did on the radar system linked to the traffic lights in that town in (was it switzerland?) but then realised the extent, accessibility and complexity of the scottish railway system made that not even a remote possibility

  • GooseWaffe
    GooseWaffe 6 meses atrás

    Such a basic but interesting piece of kit. That timing with the train honestly made my mouth drop XD

  • Shaun Pierce
    Shaun Pierce 5 meses atrás

    This video makes me want to travel around the whole of Scotland by train

  • Keith H
    Keith H Mês atrás

    Brilliant , complex problems solved by simple solutions , good piece of no frills functional engineering. .

  • Stephen Ellis
    Stephen Ellis 6 meses atrás

    The guy from Network Rail is a pro at being interviewed....impressed 👍